ACPA Concrete Pavement Progress Spring 2024

Rethinking and Repaving a Model Roadside Rest Area SPRING / 2024

AMERICAN CONCRETE PAVEMENT ASSOCIATION 9450 BRYN MAWR AVE., STE. 150, ROSEMONT, IL 60018 phone: 847-966-2272 fax: 847-966-9970 WWW.ACPA.ORG TABLE OF C O N T E N T S THE OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE PAVEMENT ASSOCIATION / ACPA.ORG PAVEMENT PROGRESS SPRING // 2024 ACPA STAFF Laura O’Neill Kaumo President & CEO Andy Gieraltowski Chief Operating Officer Amber Davis Events Coordinator Eric Ferrebee, PE Senior Director of Technical Services Valerie Kliment Assistant Accountant Tim Martin, PE Engineering Services Consultant Kelsey Carriere Director of Membership & Chapter Relations Gary Mitchell, PE Chief of Engineering & Construction Larry Scofield, PE Director of Pavement Innovation Emily Emanuelsen Publications Coordinator, AOE Kristin Dispenza Contributing Writer, AOE ADVERTISING & DESIGN LLM Publications 503-445-2220 President Stephen Bloss Sales Representative Ronnie Jacko [email protected] Design & Layout Shelby Bigelow 2024 BOARD OF DIRECTORS Ernie Peterson, Chairman Ash Grove Cement Company Don Weaver, 1st Vice Chair Weaver-Bailey Contractors, Inc. Patrick Cleary, 2nd Vice Chair Holcim U.S. Ed Wessel, 3rd Vice Chair Hi-Way Paving Dan Rozycki, Treasurer The Transtec Group Steve Friess, Immediate Past Chair Milestone Construction LP Bryan Beck GOMACO Joe Finnegan GCC America Joel Galassini CEMEX Toby Knott Heidelberg Materials John Leckie Indiana Chapter, ACPA David Loomes Continental Cement Greg Mulder Iowa Concrete Paving Association Tim Nash Wirtgen American, Inc. Ruben Guerrero Salt River Materials Greg Pelkey Shafer Contracting Co. Nathan Reede Reede Construction, Inc. John Roberts Intl. Grooving & Grinding Assn. Dave Sciullo Golden Triangle Construction Jake Steinberg American Highway Jay Van Hove Koss Construction Co. Joe Weishaar Plote Constuction Concrete Pavement Progress is the official magazine of the American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA). ACPA is the national trade association for the concrete pavement industry. The primary mission of the ACPA is to lead the promotion of concrete pavement, and align its members, chapter affiliates, and technology partners for effective concrete pavement promotion, advocacy and technical support on behalf of the concrete pavement industry. Founded in 1963, ACPA is the world’s largest trade association that exclusively represents the interests of those involved with the design, construction and preservation of concrete pavements. Copyright © 2024 by the American Concrete Pavement Association, Rosemont, Illinois. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced or distributed electronically or mechanically, either in whole or in part, without the express written consent of the American Concrete Pavement Association. FEATURED ARTICLES 08 ACPA Announces Expanded Role Supporting Sustainability and Resilience in Infrastructure Building sustainable, resilient infrastructure 10 ACPA Sits Down With 2024 Chair Ernie Peterson 12 Agencies Can Reduce Costs by Improving the Competitiveness of Their Bid Environments COVER FEATURE 15 Rethinking and Repaving a Model Roadside Rest Area Safety roadside rest area serving as a model for the future IN EVERY ISSUE 04 CEO’s Message Editorial Spring 2024 19 ACPA News Stay Up-to-date with ACPA 20 Advertiser Index 10 15

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 4 WWW.ACPA.ORG On March 12 the Federal Highways Administration (FHWA) announced the release of applications for the Low-Carbon Transportation Materials (LCTM) grant program. In play, this provides approximately $2 billion in funding for state DOTs and other qualifying entities to make changes to programs and projects that will prioritize a reduced-carbon approach. In response to this announcement, ACPA, the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center (CP Tech Center) and other engineering partners launched the Reduced Carbon Concrete Consortium (RC3), a joint effort to help disseminate information on the program to eligible groups. RC3 is available to advise on qualifying programs and projects and assist with the application process. If used properly, the grant funding will allow agencies and others to take creative approaches to transform conventional thinking and application of lowercarbon projects. The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA) and the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) are funding once-in-a-lifetime investments. Now is the time for action, innovation and bold thinking while the funding is there. Follow this QR code to learn more about RC3: Spring Editorial Speaking of funding, AASHTO recently sent a letter to Congress expressing concerns about the anticipated $8.5 billion allotted to a practice known as August Redistribution. If not claimed by states, the funding lapses. Having concerns about the previous year’s large redistribution amount, AASHTO addresses the concern that some members of Congress may perceive the funding to be excessive or “free money.” As we all know, America’s infrastructure is still in need of repair, innovation and in some areas, new capacity. Every dime is needed to improve our roads, highways and runways. With construction inflation at a record high, money isn’t going as far as it used to, so it is imperative that DOTs and other agencies take advantage of this opportunity and plan accordingly, as it may not come again. In this edition of Pavement Progress, ACPA makes the case that over the long term, healthy competition in paving programs helps stretch dollars and saves taxpayers’ money. Is there anything more American than using competition to stimulate markets, cause innovation and change and benefit the consumer? The same can be said for paving. In this edition, ACPA walks the reader through necessary steps to jumpstart a competitive paving program. ACPA is a trusted resource on grants, fostering competition, sustainability, resiliency and much more. Don’t forget to register for ACPA’s upcoming MidYear Meeting from June 4–6, 2024, in Kansas City, MO, where all of these topics will be discussed including progress on the LCTM grant applications and updates on Environmental Progress Declarations (EPDs). ACPA has been tirelessly acting as a resource to educate contractors on EPDs and help with their creation while obtaining necessary benchmarking information. Hope to see you all there! Laura O’Neill Kaumo President & CEO American Concrete Pavement Association Laura O’Neill Kaumo President & CEO American Concrete Pavement Association


CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 8 WWW.ACPA.ORG ACPA Announces Expanded Role Supporting Sustainability and Resilience in Infrastructure At World of Concrete in January, ACPA outlined its expanding role in helping DOTs, owners and other decision makers meet challenges such as rising inflation and new federal funding structures. In 2024, the association will build on its 2023 white paper, “Concrete Pavement’s Role in a Sustainable, Resilient Future,” with the addition of tools and resources that help decision makers meet global challenges while making dollars go further in a high-inflation market. ACPA’s focus in 2024 will be strategies that help owners and agencies meet funding criteria while achieving truly sustainable, resilient and long-lasting infrastructure. One aspect of the association’s support is assistance in understanding how pavement materials decisions affect funding opportunities. Another pillar is helping agencies move beyond first cost considerations to achieve long-lasting, sustainable pavements, again keeping in mind the objectives of federal funding. To kick off the year of enhanced consulting and education, the ACPA announced the following at World of Concrete. ACPA in 2024 A Look at Competition “How Agencies Can Reduce Costs by Improving the Competitiveness of Their Bid Environments,” a report detailing industry research, including research performed by the MIT Concrete Sustainability Hub (CSHub) that examines how the split of DOT paving expenditures between industries impacts paving unit costs. Findings include the fact that as inter-industry competition increases, unit costs of both concrete and asphalt paving materials fall significantly—particularly those of concrete. For example, if a state with a low concrete market share (e.g., 1%) were to increase its concrete market share to 25%, it would lower concrete and asphalt paving material unit costs by around 29% and 8%, respectively. The ACPA report also includes recommendations on how to start a competitive paving program. Carbon Reduction Guidance ACPA is participating in the Reduced-Carbon Concrete Consortium (RC3). The RC3 disseminates funding information, facilitates application submission, provides technical assistance and enhances contractor preparedness with critical next steps such as Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). Expanded Pavement Resources ACPA offers a growing library of long-life pavement case studies. Read the ACPA case studies at News From ACPA Partners The press conference at World of Concrete also covered the International Grooving & Grinding Association’s white paper titled “Diamond Grinding: A Safe, Sustainable, Quiet and CostEffective Solution to Better Roadways.” The paper is an important contribution to the industry’s knowledge base because it highlights the gains to be made, both in terms of sustainability and cost savings, using proper pavement preservation and maintenance. It assembles research results, case studies and more demonstrating how agencies and engineers can achieve longlasting, efficient, comfortable and safe travel on highways—while also meeting the challenges of sustainability, noise levels, urban heat island effect and budget—through the use of pavement diamond grinding. The IGGA is affiliated with the ACPA in a partnership known as the IGGA/ ACPA Concrete Pavement Preservation Partnership (IGGA/ACPA CP3). “Diamond grinding is the only highway surface treatment that is, in many situations, cost and carbon negative,” said Nick Davis, the Director of Technical Services at the International Grooving & Grinding Association. ANNOUNCEMENTS

WWW.ACPA.ORG 9 SPRING // 2024 “It’s no secret that states are struggling to meet infrastructure and sustainability needs—and inflation isn’t helping. However, the ACPA has identified many opportunities to help states address these challenges. The solution is not to race to the cheapest material to meet short-term needs. There are other viable solutions, which are sustainable, resilient and long-lasting if they receive proper, eco-friendly maintenance and preservation,” said Laura O’Neill Kaumo, President and CEO, ACPA. “In the pursuit of long-lasting, sustainable infrastructure, using the right paving material for a specific project is essential. At the ACPA, it is our mission to support DOTs and other agencies to make the best pavement choices, helping them succeed not only at the time of a pavement’s installation, but maintaining that pavement into the future,” said Ernie Peterson, Vice President of Sales—Midwest for Ash Grove Cement. Building sustainable, resilient infrastructure is fundamental to creating a future that meets the needs of generations to come. ACPA’s tools and resources provide valuable guidance for road owners and other decision makers as they weigh the many considerations involved in delivering this infrastructure. ANNOUNCEMENTS

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 10 WWW.ACPA.ORG ACPA Sits Down With 2024 Chair Ernie Peterson ERNIE PETERSON, VICE PRESIDENT OF SALES– MIDWEST AT ASH GROVE CEMENT COMPANY, WAS NAMED 2024 CHAIR OF ACPA’S BOARD OF DIRECTORS DURING ITS 60TH ANNUAL MEETING. ACPA SAT DOWN WITH PETERSON TO DISCUSS HIS PLANS FOR THE ASSOCIATION THIS YEAR. ⮶ What are your goals for 2024? ⮦ As chairman of the Board, my goals for this year are to continue advancing our mission and concrete paving, as well as safe, efficient transportation in general. It’s more important than ever to do concrete paving in a sustainable manner. We’re making concrete more sustainable by creating awareness about blended cement and addressing CO2 in concrete clinker production. We’re also focusing on using less energy to make the same amount of cement. Additionally, we need to find a way to show decision-makers how we create safe, efficient roads that last a really long time. We have a very good product that will last for decades, and we need to demonstrate that to people who can advance the industry. We need to advance the whole transportation industry as well, promoting safety, efficiency and sustainability. To do that, we need to improve our marketing and overall messaging. We must communicate what we’ve done with our strategic plan and goals as a group. We have great technical and engineering people—we just need to be able to bring that message to more people. ⮶ What challenges are impacting the industry most right now? ⮦ The general public should be able to see we’re doing our part to improve sustainability and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We have a sustainable product, and we need to get to a point where people aren’t pointing fingers at the construction industry or construction materials as major pollutants. Additionally, there are funding issues and construction inflation issues. Hopefully, both will level out, and we will get to do a lot of concrete pavements around the country over the next year and several years into the future. I’m very lucky that in my part of the world, the Midwest, we do a lot of concrete paving and we get to participate in many concrete projects. I know other parts of the country don’t get to do that as much. I would love to see concrete use more widespread across the country. ⮶ How can we better promote the concrete industry? ⮦ I would love to revitalize ACPA’s Emerging Leaders Program, which is a great way to get people involved in membership and the industry in general. We need more people on the management side, as well as bidding and quoting. We also need people putting the product down on the grade. Getting more people to join our industry is an important aspect all around, and the Emerging Leaders Program can help. I also would like to encourage ACPA members to talk to their state legislators. We need to put in our two cents about continuing to upgrade poor construction by expanding bridges, highways and all those things that connect us. It’s okay to talk about pavements to legislative bodies and let them choose what they think is the best product for their needs. Keys to success are getting more concrete pavements in general, as well as letting people decide what pavement is best for them. I like to think in terms of growing the pie and then we can fight for our slice of it at the local level. So be vocal to your representatives. Visit elected officials, whether it’s county boards, state legislature representatives or at the federal level. Years ago, we talked about the “volunteer army,” referring to people selling products and materials. We can encourage this group to be proconstruction in terms of state and federal dollar allocation. ⮶ How can members get more out of their ACPA membership? ⮦ There are many opportunities throughout the year to get involved. ACPA has a mid-year meeting in Kansas City in June, and we would love for people to attend. 2024 CHAIR ERNIE PETERSON Ernie Peterson 2024 Chairman of the Board of Directors and Vice President of Sales—Midwest for Ash Grove Cement, American Concrete Pavement Association

WWW.ACPA.ORG 11 SPRING // 2024 In December, we will have our annual meeting in the Phoenix area. We would love for people to show up and see what the big meetings are all about. Members also can become involved in the board, or connect with representatives for the technical side of the association, like Eric Ferrebee, our Senior Director of Technical Services, and Gary Mitchell, Chief of Engineering and Construction. ⮶ What should people know about ACPA and its membership? ⮦ ACPA is a passionate and very intelligent group of people who are some of the best in the world. What our members do does not come easily—it takes a lot of experience. It takes years of ups and downs, trials and errors. The concrete pavers out in the field are really good at what they do. We need to communicate that we have some of the best paving contractors in the world at ACPA. We need to give them a chance to show what they can do. We need to get as many opportunities as we can for members to put down long-lasting pavement. If you’re a DOT professional or engineer and in a position to do pavement selection, you can have confidence in this group. The members in this group will deliver a good product. ⮶ Tell me about yourself and your history in the industry. ⮦ I’ve been married for almost 34 years and have three adult daughters. One is in the lightweight aggregate industry. She’s very involved and really loves it. I’m proud that she actually wanted to be in this whole crazy world that I’ve been in forever. I also have a little dog that thinks he runs the house. I had a stepdad in the concrete pipe business, which is how I got into the industry originally. He bought Ash Grove Cement, really liked the company and thought I might be a good fit for the company after I graduated from college. He was right, because I’ve been with Ash Grove for more than 25 years. I’ve been fortunate to work with a lot of great people and enjoyed getting to know CRH, who is now the owner of Ash Grove Cement. I’ve been lucky to see two different ways of doing business, and I’ve been impressed with both ways. 2024 CHAIR ERNIE PETERSON I’ve been fortunate to work with a lot of great people and enjoyed getting to know CRH, who is now the owner of Ash Grove Cement. I’ve been lucky to see two different ways of doing business, and I’ve been impressed with both ways.

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 12 WWW.ACPA.ORG BID ENVIRONMENTS Agencies Can Reduce Costs by Improving the Competitiveness of Their Bid Environments A version of this article was authored by Eric Ferrebee P.E., Senior Director of Technical Services, American Concrete Pavement Association and Jim Mack, Past President of the Board, American Concrete Pavement Association and Director, Infrastructure and Sustainability, CEMEX and published in Roads & Bridges magazine as “Embrace Competition,” January 2024. CONCRETE HAS A PROVEN RECORD OF BEING A VIABLE PAVING MATERIAL. IN FACT, IN THE MID-20TH CENTURY WHEN THE INTERSTATE SYSTEM WAS NEW AND BEING BUILT, CONCRETE WAS THE MOST COMMON PAVING MATERIAL. Its decline in use is largely attributable to a decline in information dissemination and knowledge on concrete repair, maintenance and replacement activities, as well as the fact that concrete repair techniques were still being developed. The declining use of concrete occurred gradually, concurrent with the rising use of asphalt, as budgets shifted toward preservation rather than rehabilitation and reconstruction. However, with renewed education efforts, and a greater need for more permanent solutions, inter-industry levels of competition (that is, competition among firms that pave with different materials) can increase, and costs across the board will lower. Research Results Show Competition Works to Lower Costs in the Paving Industry Improving inter-industry competition brings both additional contractors to the bidding process and a second level of competition into the supply chain (e.g., the asphalt, concrete and cement suppliers). While these suppliers may not directly compete against one another, the sustained competitive pressures between the industries and down the value chain drive costs lower as supply chains get established, skilled personnel develop, construction quality improves, innovation is spurred and risks decline. The MIT Concrete Sustainability Hub (CSHub) examined state Department of Transportation (DOT) pavement bid data collected between 2005 and 2018 to see how the split of DOT paving expenditures between industries impacted paving unit costs. The first result the MIT CSHub found was that while DOT spending on concrete and asphalt paving materials varied greatly from state to state, only two states (Iowa and Wisconsin) spent more than 40% of their paving budget on concrete pavements, while 22 states spent more than 90% of their paving budget on asphalt Fig. 1: 50-Year Trends in Competitive Materials Mapped Against General Inflation Rates. Image courtesy of Jim Mack, CEMEX.

WWW.ACPA.ORG 13 SPRING // 2024 BID ENVIRONMENTS pavements. Similarly, the amount of intra-industry competition (competition among firms that pave with the same material) is not as high as it could be. Some states often had only one or two bidders for many of their projects. Yet the key to competition is having a healthy multi-bidder environment. Next, MIT evaluated and analyzed the bid results for the given time period, comparing weighted unit costs versus a five-year average balance of DOT pavement type usage for both asphalt and concrete pavements. The analysis involved developing statistical models to determine what factors have a significant influence on paving material costs, including items like project size, the amount of paving material used, the number of bidders (a metric of intra-industry competition) and the average share of spending in a state on concrete (a metric of inter-industry competition). Bid costs were adjusted to account for year-toyear cost changes. For asphalt paving, the most influential factors impacting unit costs are project size followed by inter-industry competition. For concrete paving, the most influential factors are inter-industry competition followed by project size. The fact that inter-industry competition was the first or second most influential item clearly shows that when competition between paving industries increases, with asphalt and concrete applications being more evenly split, there is a clear trend toward lower unit costs for both concrete and asphalt pavements. Results also showed a decrease in variability in unit costs for both materials that accompanied increasing levels of inter-industry competition. It is important to note that states with higher levels of competition tended to be the states with stable and predictable paving programs, which implies that sustained programs, for both concrete and asphalt, are important in maintaining predictable and low unit costs. Once researchers determined the key factors, they again used statistical modeling to estimate how increasing inter-industry competition would impact paving costs. Overall, they found that as inter-industry competition increased, the unit costs of both concrete and asphalt paving materials fell significantly—particularly those of concrete. For example, if a state with a low concrete market share (e.g., 1%) were to increase its concrete market share to 25%, it would lower concrete and asphalt paving material unit costs by around 29% and 8%, respectively, which would allow the state to buy more paving materials. The Unchecked Rise in Prices Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) (See Fig. 1) show that the 50-year price trend for paving with asphalt has gone up starkly when compared to general inflation rates and concrete. This is unsurprising as the price for liquid asphalt (a key ingredient in HMA) is very volatile, with yearly swings often exceeding 40%. On top of this, when only one material is being used, demand causes saturation, which causes the price to increase further. Particularly when it comes to a high-demand product like asphalt, when all of the asphalt plants become engaged, saturation occurs and prices will rise in the absence of new entrants or alternative materials to compete and drive prices back down. These asphalt price change drivers can be offset if there are alternative materials in the market. When they do choose concrete pavement, agencies often make the selection based on concrete’s durability and longevity (qualities which contribute to cost reduction when life cycle cost analysis is employed). Recent bids across the United States, however, have illustrated that concrete can also be successful on an initial cost basis—and this has been the case even with accelerated construction projects. The key is to make materials decisions early and create continues on page 14 » For example, if a state with a low concrete market share (e.g., 1%) were to increase its concrete market share to 25%, it would lower concrete and asphalt paving material unit costs by around 29% and 8%, respectively, which would allow the state to buy more paving materials.

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 14 WWW.ACPA.ORG job-specific designs. An example is work done by the Impactful Resilient Infrastructure Science and Engineering (IRISE) Consortium, established through the University of Pittsburgh. IRISE helped one project team in Pennsylvania lower the initial cost of concrete by eliminating a high early strength concrete mix and testing and using, instead, a maturity method for determining the concrete’s strength gain. Starting a Competitive Paving Program Implementing a competitive paving program in an agency needs to be done at both the “programmatic level” and at the “project level.” At the programmatic level, planning and communication are the first steps because they indicate that the agency is committed to a program that will foster competition. Next, when the team identifies projects in which concrete or asphalt could each provide a viable solution, it should make a deliberate decision to go with the less dominant material to create a competitive market. Similarly, the agency should look for cement-based solutions in multiple applications (e.g., interstates, state highways, rural roads, intersections, roundabouts, ramps, etc.) so opportunities for contractors of all sizes are developed. Next, the agency should let a given number of concrete projects each year, just as they do asphalt, and develop a project pipeline that covers several years. Finally, technical task forces will be needed to address issues with specifications, design procedures and other issues that arise. Pavement Treatments For individual pavement projects, helpful strategies for achieving value include optimizing concrete designs to avoid over-design, looking at multiple solutions (e.g., new concrete pavement, concrete overlays, RCC, etc.–see table); performing life cycle cost analysis (which quantifies the total cost of ownership over a pavement life) and using alternate pavement bidding (a bidding process where two equivalent pavement designs are developed for a given project and the contractor then chooses which pavement to submit for his bid). To implement an alternate pavement bidding program, agencies should follow the process outlined by FHWA in their Guidance on Alternate Pavement Bidding (see https://www. continued from page 13 Several states have a successful history of creating project pipelines that include both asphalt and concrete, and their practices can serve as models. Some states use a strategy of designating a target number for concrete installations. For its new roads, the Florida DOT targets approximately 40 miles of concrete pavement per year. Similarly, Texas DOT has an established practice of bidding approximately five million square yards of concrete every year, which represents approximately 26% of their projects. Other states programmatically balance the market based on a defined metric such as volume. Wisconsin and Michigan provide examples of this; both attempt to balance the tonnage of asphalt in a given year to the square yards of concrete pavement that is placed. The advantage of this system is both industries participate in times when funding is plentiful, and both take similar reductions when funding levels are lower. Another approach is to use traffic or road classifications to designate specific markets for each product. In the past, Minnesota DOT-based product decisions on equivalent single axle load (ESAL) values, with projects under one million ESALs being constructed of asphalt, projects over seven million ESALs being constructed of concrete and projects between one and seven million ESALs going through a lifecycle cost analysis to determine the most appropriate material. The research shows—and the experiences of multiple states bear out—it is a myth that there’s no way to lower the unit cost of a pavement. Encouraging competition between paving materials is a clear strategy that would cause costs for all materials to go down. BID ENVIRONMENTS

WWW.ACPA.ORG 15 SPRING // 2024 continues on page 16 » RETHINKING AND REPAVING Rethinking and Repaving a Model Roadside Rest Area A version of this article was authored by Mark Gudenas, Southwest Concrete Pavement Association and Kristin Dispenza, Senior Account Manager, Advancing Organizational Excellence and published in Roads & Bridges magazine as “Rest Area Ahead,” January 2024. CALTRANS’ MODERNIZATION OF HIGHWAY REST STOPS IN CALIFORNIA REPRESENTS A BIG STEP FORWARD IN SUSTAINABILITY, WITH THE JOHN “CHUCK” (J.C.) ERRECA SAFETY ROADSIDE REST AREA SERVING AS A MODEL FOR THE FUTURE. Low-power demand, low-water usage and long-life concrete pavement are key features that work together to achieve sustainability goals. Safety roadside rest areas (SRRA) were first addressed on a national scale in the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the same act that outlined funding for the Interstate Highway System itself. The Highway Beautification Act of 1965 spurred further investment, and by the end of the 1970s, SRRAs were a reliable convenience along most major highways. Fifty years later, many rest areas built in the ‘70s are at an age where they require substantial upgrades. But updating an SRRA means much more than just giving it a facelift. In California, it means complying with requirements set forth by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Division of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Cal/OSHA) and the California Green Building Standards Code Part 11, Title 24, California Code of Regulations (CALGreen). Amenities recently constructed as part of the John “Chuck” Erreca Rest Area Replacement Project, located on Interstate 5 (I-5) approximately 20 miles south of Santa Nella, California, conform to all regulatory requirements and usher in a new era of SRRAs in terms of design and sustainability. When completed, the J.C. Erreca SRRA will be the most sustainable SSRA ever built by Caltrans. The Caltrans District 10 Construction Team and contractor Walsh Construction Company of Concord, California, began work on the Erreca rest area in April 2022, and have a projected completion date of July 2024. Sustainability Features are a Model for the Future The number of visitors to roadside rest areas has multiplied since the early days of highway travel and is expected to continue to grow, so expanding capacity is key. “For the construction years 2022 and 2023, average annual daily traffic numbers at the SRRA were 1,800 southbound and 2,080 northbound. By the year 2042, which is the design year—that is, the expected design life of the project—we expect to Fig. 1: Concrete pavement was selected to help withstand heavy I-5 traffic and California’s hot temperatures.

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 16 WWW.ACPA.ORG have an average of approximately 2,600 vehicles stopping at southbound rest area each day and 3,000 northbound. Thirty-four to thirty-eight percent of these vehicles will be trucks or buses,” said Caltrans Project Manager Navraj Jammu. At the project’s outset, more than 6,500 cubic yards of soil were moved while re-grading the site, and the existing northbound and southbound comfort station buildings were demolished. Those buildings were replaced with a water treatment facility, comfort stations and vending buildings on both northbound and southbound sides of the highway, and structures for the use by maintenance crews. A wastewater treatment facility was also built on the site. Concrete was chosen for the project’s pavement, as it offers a long life—40 years or longer—while requiring little or no maintenance. More than 180,000 cubic feet of concrete (90,000 on each side of the highway) were installed to serve as parking for trucks and cars, along with an additional 40 feet of concrete pavement that created the SRRAs on- and off-ramps. The car parking areas are constructed of 9-inch-thick jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) and truck parking areas are constructed of 12-inch-thick JPCP. Steel dowels were inserted to help distribute loads. The original asphalt pavement was removed, ground up and recycled as base material for the new pavement. “Given our sustainability goals, using hot mix asphalt didn’t fit,” said Jefferson Birrell, Landscape Associate at Caltrans. “We believe this rest area will be in place for a long time, and concrete pavement will last.” Rigid and durable, concrete pavement is better suited to withstand the heavy I-5 truck traffic. “Improving the structural capacity of the parking areas was a goal of this project,” said Michael Smith, Infrastructure Solutions Manager at CEMEX, the cement supplier for the project. “Because concrete creates a rigid pavement and not a flexible one, it won’t rut. Furthermore, the point load of a parked vehicle (and of starting and stopping vehicles) is greater than the load of a moving vehicle, so rigid pavement helps spread out that load. By distributing the load instead of concentrating it, we avoid having it penetrate into the subgrade, which can happen with flexible pavements. Those heavy, concentrated loads on flexible pavement can sometimes even penetrate into the base.” continued from page 15 Fig. 2: Aerial shots of the John “Chuck” Erreca Rest Area Replacement Project on I-5 in California, about 1,000 feet north of the Merced-Fresno county line, show the construction of long-lived concrete pavement. RETHINKING AND REPAVING

WWW.ACPA.ORG 17 SPRING // 2024 “Another consideration is that vehicles, especially big rigs, drip oil and these drips penetrate asphalt and cause deterioration. Concrete is not susceptible to deterioration when exposed to oil, so this contributes to its durability,” said Caltrans Transportation Engineer Inderpal Gill. “Experience has shown us that those oil drips are really detrimental. The damage they cause not only drives up maintenance costs but they also negatively affect a visitor’s experience of the rest area, so avoiding the damage by using concrete will be a benefit,” added Caltrans Resident Engineer Zubair Anwar. Resilient, long-life concrete pavement is inherently sustainable. Plus, an additional sustainability benefit of concrete pavement is that it possesses a high albedo, which means it reflects large amounts of light energy from the sun back into the atmosphere instead of absorbing it. As a result, it remains cooler than other pavement surfaces. “Concrete’s coolness was another feature that made it a desirable choice for the Erreca rest area,” said Smith. “By absorbing less energy due to the reflectivity of the pavement, it lowers the ambient air temperatures and reduces the urban heat island effect.” Upgrading utilities was another major way Caltrans achieved sustainability on the J.C. Erreca SRRA project, with a focus on low water usage and low power demand. This conservation method will serve as a working model for the rest area visitors. Caltrans will also install solar electrical generation facilities on the site. Gray water (wastewater from the sinks) will be captured and treated in the site’s wastewater facility, then reused for flushing toilets. Potable water will be sourced from surface water and treated using an ultrafiltration system. (Ultrafiltration processes use superfine membranes to mechanically filter very small particulates out of water.) “The use of filtered surface water is important because it reduces reliance on the state water system during a time when we’ve been hit with a severe drought and consumers have been asked to make cuts in water usage,” said Birrell. Landscaping was also designed to minimize water use, in keeping with Caltrans’ water conservation strategies, which include indigenous, drought-tolerant plants and the preservation of existing vegetation. Designing for the Future but Remembering the Past Like many state departments of transportation, Caltrans is designing its SRRAs to architecturally express what makes a specific region unique. “The region where the Erreca rest area is located used to host Basque sheep herders—in fact, it takes its name from one of those men. To honor the area’s history, we have installed graphics on the wall that are inspired by the brands those herders used on their sheep,” said Birrell. John “Chuck” Erreca was the son of a Basque rancher and went on to be elected as mayor of Los Banos and then appointed to the highway commission. While in that post, he became a champion of roadside rest stops. Birrell continued, “We are also installing an interpretive display discussing the region’s Basque history, and the design of the paving in the main plaza was modeled on aerial views of farmland to the east.” Another informational display on the site highlights facts about the California Aqueduct, a concrete channel that carries water from Northern California to Southern California and is an important part of the State Water Project, supplying water for agriculture, homes and businesses. The aqueduct runs parallel to I-5 and adjacent to the Erreca rest area, making it ideal for educating visitors on the aqueduct and the State Water Project. The total project cost for the J.C. Erreca SRRA Project is $37 million. Experience gained during its construction will carry forward, informing future rest stop designs and improving sustainability across the system. Viewing the project, Smith observed, “Caltrans is moving the needle on sustainability and getting results.” Fig. 3: Concrete helped the project team improve structural capacity and aid resistance to deterioration from oil drips. RETHINKING AND REPAVING


WWW.ACPA.ORG 19 SPRING // 2024 ACPA NEWS Stay up-to-date with ACPA Keep abreast of industry news, ACPA happenings and professional development opportunities by following us on LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook. @paveconcrete @paveconcrete63 American Concrete Pavement Association

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